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Where did the SWAP program come from? The federal Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of established the Wellhead Protection Program, which required states to administer a source water protection program for their systems using ground water. Environmental Protection Agency U. Administered by Ohio EPA, the program provided guidance and technical assistance to public water systems, who were encouraged to complete assessments and protection plans using their own resources.
Ohio EPA staff reviewed the assessments and formally endorsed them, when complete. Inthe Safe Drinking Water Act was amended again. Section was added, providing states with federal funding to complete source water assessments for their public water systems. At that time, the program was extended to include surface water systems and was renamed "Source Water Protection.
It is the intent of Congress that public water systems use the information in their source water assessment to develop a drinking water source protection plan. They have the same goal and the same methods, but originated at different times historically, with different scopes.
The Wellhead Protection program was created by the amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and focused exclusively on ground water systems. Ten years later, Congress recognized that the program was faltering due to lack of funding.
They passed the amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, which extended source water protection to surface water systems and provided for funding.
In some other states, the two programs are kept separate due to state-specific administrative or legal issues. In Ohio, the differences between the two programs are mostly of historical interest and are summarized below. WHP focused exclusively on ground water systems and prioritized large community systems.
SWAP extended the program to all public water systems, including surface water systems and non-community systems.
The national WHP program provided standards for public water systems to conduct assessments delineation and inventory of a protection area and develop a local protection plan.
The national SWAP program exclusively addressed assessments.
National funding was not provided for WHP. The national WHP program did not require susceptibility analyses as part of assessment activities. This requirement was added to the SWAP program.
InOhio EPA completed susceptibility analyses for all public water systems that had already completed their own assessments under WHP. What is a public water system? A public water system is defined as a system that provides water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections or serves an average of at least 25 people for at least 60 days each year.
This includes water used for drinking, food preparation, bathing, showering, tooth brushing and dish-washing. Public water systems range in size from large municipalities to small churches and restaurants that rely on a single well. There are three types of public water systems: Community water systems serve at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serve at least 25 year-round residents.
Examples include cities, mobile home parks and nursing homes. Non-transient, non-community systems serve at least 25 of the same persons over six months per year. Transient, non-community systems serve at least 25 different persons over 60 days per year.
Examples include campgrounds, restaurants and gas stations. In addition, drinking water systems associated with agricultural migrant labor camps, as defined by the Ohio Department of Agriculture, are regulated even though they may not meet the minimum number of people or service connections.
Public water systems use either a ground water source or a surface water source, including ground water under the direct influence of surface water.
In Ohio, more than 4, public water systems serve approximately Private water systems are regulated by the Ohio Department of Health. Private water systems are households and small businesses that serve fewer than 25 people per day 60 days out of the year, and are thus not public water systems.
Examples include small bed and breakfasts, small day-cares and small churches.Brender JD et al. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
The federal Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of established the Wellhead Protection Program, which required states to administer a source water protection program for their systems using ground water.
The Division of Drinking and Ground Waters (DDAGW) rules were promulgated under U.S. EPA's Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).Rules for Ohio public drinking water systems are adopted under Ohio Revised Code (ORC) Section , and rules for Underground Injection Control, under ORC Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) rules administered by DDAGW are located on this page.
Drinking water in our state comes from a variety of sources including groundwater wells and surface waters. NMED oversees activities surrounding the treatment and deliverance of safe, clean drinking water and ensures compliance of federal and state drinking water regulations.
Read chapter 8 Alternatives for Premise Plumbing: Protecting and maintaining water distributions systems is crucial to ensuring high quality drinking wate. Congressional Research Service Reports. The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress and solely serves Congress as a source of nonpartisan, objective analysis and research on all legislative issues.
Through Congress, the National Agricultural Law Center periodically receives CRS reports related to agriculture and food issues.