The traditions and heritage of these centers of higher learning were later carried on to schools such as Iran's Nizamiyyaand Baghdad's House of Wisdomduring the Islamic era. Modern[ edit ] It was Abbas Mirza who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education. By the s Darolfonoon was competing with other prominent institutions of modern learning. The Military College of Tehran Madraseh-ye Nezamestablished in with a budget of 10, tomans, was its first rival; and in the College of political sciences Madraseh-ye olum-e siyasi was organized within the Foreign ministry.
Comment Migration was the issue of the year in and it will likely remain important in The topic is, however, just as hotly debated as it is poorly understood. The so-called "refugee crisis" in Europe and the omnipresent images of overfilled boats arriving on Mediterranean shores give the impression that migration is threatening to spin out of control and that radical action is needed to curtail the uncontrollable influx of migrants.
The fear of mass migration has fueled the rise of extreme nationalist parties throughout Europe and helped Donald Trump win the presidential election in the U.
This call for tougher migration policies is juxtaposed by another, albeit somewhat weaker, opinion voiced by the business sector, human rights and religious organizations and left-liberal parties.
They argue that migration tends to be beneficial for both origin and destination societies, and that we should not see refugees as a burden but as a potential resource.
But in this polarized debate, the rather more sobering facts unfortunately get lost. Both the left-wing and right-wing narratives on migration are rooted in a series of myths that reveal a striking lack of knowledge about the nature, causes and consequences of migration processes.
This text examines eight of the myths that I have often encountered in my research. No, closed borders do not automatically lead to less migration. It isn't quite as easy as simply slamming the door shut. Migration restrictions can have several unintended side-effects which may undermine their effectiveness.
First, restrictions can compel migrants to find other legal or illegal channels - the use of family reunification channels by de facto economic migrants, for example.
Second, strict border controls often divert migration flows through other terrestrial and maritime routes, thereby increasing the market for smugglers. Third, restrictions can lead to surges of "now-or-never" migration. When Suriname became independent from the Netherlands infor example, about 40 percent of its population migrated to Holland before visas were introduced.
Finally, restrictions tend to interrupt circulation and push migrants into permanent settlement. This is what happened, for instance, with the so-called "guest-workers" in the s and '80s.
Fearful that they would not be able to re-immigrate after a temporary return home, many opted for permanent settlement. Prior towhen movement was free, many Moroccans travelled back-and-forth to Spain as seasonal and temporary workers, but the introduction of visa requirements inas a consequence of the Schengen Agreement, set in motion the phenomenon of illegal boat migration and triggered permanent settlement of Moroccan laborers in Spain.
They, in turn, brought over their families, leading to the rapid growth of the Moroccan population in the country to overThis does not mean that governments cannot or should not control migration.
It rather shows that liberal immigration policies do not necessarily lead to mass migration and that ill-conceived migration policies can be counterproductive.
Free migration is often strongly circulatory, as we see with migration within the EU.
The more restrictive entry policies are, the more migrants want to stay. Such unintended effects create fundamental dilemmas for policymakers. No, migration policies have not failed. Significant media attention on persistent boat migration and irregular border crossings have created a distorted and misleading image that migration policies are "broken" and borders are beyond control.
The intense focus on the "refugee crisis" has hidden the fact that most migration policies are, in fact, quite effective. After all, the large majority of migrants - according to best available estimates, at least nine out of 10 - enter Europe legally, defying the idea of that migration is "out of control.
Periods of extremely high refugee migration, such as in or in the s during the Balkan conflicts, are more the exception than the rule and tend not to last. Immigration is not a flow that can be turned on and off like a tap. Modern immigration policies aim to influence the selection and timing of migration rather than volumes of migration.
We do, however, often overestimate what migration policies can achieve.
This is because migration is driven by processes of economic development and social change - both in origin and destination societies - that lie beyond the reach of migration policies. In times of strong economic growth, more migrants are likely to find jobs and thus obtain work permits.
Economic migration is strongly driven by labor demand, defying popular ideas that it is an uncontrolled phenomenon largely driven by poverty and violence in origin countries.Jun 06, · “Out of 10 people, four will be unemployed, and it’s causing the city a lot of brain drain and a lot of stress and challenges at economic and social levels,” she says.
Lebanon (Lubnan) or the Lebanese Republic (Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah) can be thought of as, "a land in-between."This definition well describes its geographical positioning, political situation, religious compilation, and communication and press orientation. Lawyer Mohammed Darwish never thought he would join the ranks of the Lebanese diaspora, but when an opportunity to work as a legal consultant in Jeddah presented itself in .
Canadas Declining Health Care System and the Brain Drain Canada's government-funded health care system in under attack.
Despite the mandate of the Canada health act, which was meant to assure universality, comprehensiveness, equitable access, public administration and portability of our health care system, (Braithwaite 17), Canadians today make the issue of health care their most important political .
Brain drain is the process in a which a country or area loses it most talented and educated workers to other countries or areas ; Brain drain occurs due to push and pull factors between countries.
Brain drain is a term indicating the emigration of educated or talented individuals due to domestic turmoil or professional opportunities elsewhere.