Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph. Few readers may realize how heavy a toll is taken by suicide during the years of high school, college, and young adulthood.
A Study in Sociology, translated by J. He, Zhao Xiung, and David Lester. Neeleman, Jan, and Glyn Lewis. Neeleman, Jan, and Simon Wessely. Pearson and Yeates Conwell eds.
Soldatos, and Costas Stefanis eds. Toward a Population Increase Theory of Suicide. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the word suicidium was actually derived by combining the Latin pronoun for "self" and the verb "to kill.
Early English also used phrases, such as self-murder, self-destruction, and self-killer, all of which reflect the early association of the act with murder. Primitive and Traditional Societies There is reliable evidence that suicide was present in most primitive tribes around the world, almost always associated with evil spirits, revenge, and unappeased anger.
These attitudes in the form of superstitions and fears of magic found their way into Christianity as taboos that have persisted to this day. Attitudes toward suicide, however, have shown great variability depending on the culture and the part of the world. In primitive societies suicide was variously used as a means to exact vengeance, as a way of placing responsibility for the death on the person who had supposedly caused it, and as a way of embarrassing an adversary.
In other cultures suicide was not only tolerated but actually encouraged. The Goths and the Celts believed that to die naturally was shameful.
Vikings unlucky enough not to die in battle fell on their own swords or jumped off cliffs in order to be able to enter Valhalla the great hall of Odin for slain heroes in Norse mythology. And some Eskimo tribes believed it was better to kill oneself before growing feeble because people entered the next life in the same condition they left this one.
In a number of societies tradition demanded that wives, retainers, servants, and ministers kill themselves so that they could continue to administer to the needs of their master after he died. Sometimes there was competition among the wives to be the first to follow the husband in death because that privilege identified his favorite.
In Hindu India, the practice of suttee, the suicide of a widow by self-immolation on the funeral pyre of her husband, is reported to continue in some rural parts of the country, although it has long since been outlawed. Generally, however, the Hindu attitude toward suicide is ambiguous, condemning it but calling it justified in special cases, such as when a person has lived a full life or has achieved a special level as an ascetic.
In early Oriental sacred writings, suicide was viewed with contradictory attitudes that both encouraged and condemned it. In ancient China the ceremonial sacrifice of widows was almost as commonplace as it was in India; it was also reported to occur frequently because of the wretchedness of people's lives.
In Japan, Buddhist tradition institutionalized suicide with several kinds of seppuku, a ritual form of disemboweling oneself that was used to admit failure, atone for a mistake, or avoid humiliation. Among the samurai, the professional warriors of feudal Japan, seppuku was incorporated into an ethical code known as Bushido, which required the warrior to follow his dead lord into the next life, to regain honor when revenge was not possible, and to avoid execution by the enemy in a lost battle.
Brahmanism was sympathetic to suicide in that its philosophy incorporated denial of the body and the separation of the body from the soul in the intensive search for knowledge.
Mohammedism condemned suicide with great severity, calling suicide a rejection of the divine will, which was expressed in many different ways and to which humans must submit themselves at all times. The Jewish Tradition Suicide among the Jews is generally infrequent, mostly because the value of life itself was so highly emphasized in the Torah.
In the Old Testament of the Bible, a Jew is allowed to transgress every religious commandment in order to save his life except in cases of murder, incest, and the denial of God.
Suicide was wrong, but was acceptable in instances of imminent capture and torture, apostasy, and shame or dishonor. Neither the Hebrew Bible nor the New Testament condemns nor condones suicide—nor does either contain the word suicide.
The occasions of such deaths are described simply, briefly, and factually: Samson brought the temple of the Philistines down upon himself in order to kill his captors Judg.
The Jews were involved in a number of mass suicides. In an early instance, Josephus, the Jewish general who later became a Roman historian, decided to surrender to the Romans when his army was defeated.
His solders argued they should all kill themselves instead.
They were able to over-come Josephus's arguments and proceeded to kill each other, but he was able to survive by persuading the last remaining soldier that the two of them should save themselves. The best-known occasion was the death in 74 C.
The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans The first recorded reference to suicide comes from ancient Egypt about 4, years ago in The Dispute between a Man and His Ba, in which a man describes the injustice and greed of his times to his ba, or soul, which has threatened to leave him if he kills himself, thus depriving him of an afterlife.
There was no dishonor associated with the act of suicide itself, for death was seen as a mere passage from this life to the next and as a convenient way to avoid excessive pain or dishonor. The dead were considered coequals with the gods and to have the same physical and emotional needs as the living.
Suicide among the ancient Greeks and Roman varied widely with respect to tolerance and legal restrictions. The primitive attitudes of horror and condemnation for suicide were preserved in the lower classes, but the upper classes were more tolerant and accepting.The Girl Behind the Door: A Father's Quest to Understand His Daughter's Suicide [John Brooks] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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A. AGS Ethics Committee, Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, May , 43(5) Excerpt from Essay: Teen Suicide Suicide among teenagers is one of the great tragedies of our world today.
It affects families, schools, and the community (Bostik and Everall, ). Backmasking is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backward onto a track that is meant to be played forward.
Backmasking is a deliberate process, whereas a message found through phonetic reversal may be unintentional.. Backmasking was popularised by The Beatles, who used backward instrumentation on their album Revolver.