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The field has stimulated new ideas and has inspired the exploration of the vast composition space offered by multi-principal element alloys MPEAs. Here we present a critical review of this field, with the intent of summarizing key findings, uncovering major trends and providing guidance for future efforts.
Major themes in this assessment include definition of terms; thermodynamic analysis of complex, concentrated alloys CCAs ; taxonomy of current alloy families; microstructures; mechanical properties; potential applications; and future efforts.
Based on detailed analyses, the following major results emerge.
Although classical thermodynamic concepts are unchanged, trends in MPEAs can be different than in simpler alloys. Common thermodynamic perceptions can be misleading and new trends are described. From a strong focus on 3d transition metal alloys, there are now seven distinct CCA families.
A new theme of designing alloy families by selecting elements to achieve a specific, intended purpose is starting to emerge. A comprehensive microstructural assessment is performed using three datasets: Each dataset emphasizes different elements and shows different microstructural trends.
A total of 13 distinct multi-principal element single-phase fields are found in this microstructural assessment. Relationships between composition, microstructure and properties are established for 3d transition metal MPEAs, including the roles of Al, Cr and Cu.
Critical evaluation shows that commercial austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys with 3 or more principal elements are MPEAs, as well as some established functional materials.
Detailed analyses of microstructures and properties allow two major HEA hypotheses to be resolved.
Building on recent published work, the CCA field has expanded to include materials with metallic, ionic or covalent bonding. It also includes microstructures with any number of phases and any type of phases. Finally, the MPEA field is shown to include both structural and functional materials applications.
A significant number of future efforts are recommended, with an emphasis on developing high-throughput experiments and computations for structural materials. The review concludes with a brief description of major accomplishments of the field and insights gained from the first 12 years of research.
The field has lost none of its potency and continues to pose new questions and offer new possibilities. The vast range of complex compositions and microstructures remains the most compelling motivation for future studies.
Previous article in issue.Stainless steels are iron-base alloys containing at least 11 wt.% Chromium. They typcially contain less than 30 wt.% Cr and more than 50wt.% Fe. Stainless steels obtain their stainless characteristics because of the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film.
Stainless steels are iron-base alloys containing at least 11 wt.% Chromium.
They typcially contain less than 30 wt.% Cr and more than 50wt.% Fe. Stainless steels obtain their stainless characteristics because of the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film.
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