School School is something that we all know and understand, as we all have to go there as children whether we like it or not. It means very different things to very different people, though. In the USA, any educational establishment can be described as a school, when as in the UK, school is a place you go to up to the age of A school is also a group of fish, although we will focus on the educational establishment in this essay.
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This is a fluid theoretical model which is subject to change, and, indeed, does continuously change as the faculty continues to redefine this term. The perspective that couples a focus on individual learners their heredity, experiences, perspectives, backgrounds, talents, interests, capacities, and needs with a focus on learning the best available knowledge about learning and how it occurs and about teaching practices that are most effective in promoting the highest levels of motivation, learning, and achievement for all learners.
This dual focus, then, informs and drives educational decision-making. In this perspective, learner-centered education involves the learner and learning in the programs, policies, and teaching that support effective learning for all students.
Administrators are responsible for developing, maintaining and enhancing a school environment that enhances effective learning. They are also responsible for ensuring that teachers are knowledgeable about their students and about how learning occurs best.
Teachers are responsible for having classrooms that promote effective learning for all and for being familiar with the instructional techniques that promote effective learning for all. The following five premises support these assertions. Learners have distinctive perspectives or frames of reference, contributed to by their history, the environment, their interests and goals, their beliefs, their ways of thinking and the like.
These must be attended to and respected if learners are to become more actively involved in the learning process and to ultimately become independent thinkers. Learners have unique differences, including emotional states of mind, learning rates, learning styles, stages of development, abilities, talents, feelings of efficacy, and other needs.
These must be taken into account if all learners are to learn more effectively and efficiently. Learning is a process that occurs best when what is being learned is relevant and meaningful to the learner and when the learner is actively engaged in creating his or her own knowledge and understanding by connecting what is being learned with prior knowledge and experience.
Learning occurs best in an environment that contains positive interpersonal relationships and interactions and in which the learner feels appreciated, acknowledged, respected, and validated.
Learning is seen as a fundamentally natural process; learners are viewed as naturally curious and basically interested in learning about and mastering their world. For educational systems to serve the needs of every learner, it is essential that every instructional decision focuses on the individual learner—with an understanding of the learning process.
The history of learner-centered education has one foot in philosophy and the other in psychology. Following is a cursory review of some of the important contributions of educational philosophy to the development of learner-centered education followed by a review of some of the most important contributions of educational psychology.
Within years, the Chinese had also established formal schools. These early teachers emphasized individual character and citizenship. Perhaps the earliest individual teachers to have a profound, direct effect on learner-centered education were the Chinese philosopher Confucius B.
Confucius stressed character and good citizenship, and Socrates stressed the individual. Englishman Francis Bacon introduced the scientific method as a way of thinking and learning, which was opposite to the way Aristotle had taught people to think.
Bacon took exception with the Aristotelian method, which had dominated for almost two millennia and remained the popular method of the day.
Aristotle began his thinking by making assumptions, and assumptions introduce thinking errors. Realizing that this convergent method was flawed, Bacon warned that if we begin our thinking with certainties, we end with questions, but if we begin with questions, we end with certainties.
He insisted that we rid ourselves of four idols, which cloud our thinking. Bacon said that our thinking is limited by our lack of experience Idol of the Denby what others believe Idol of the Tribesby unclear language Idol of the Market Placeand the by influence of religion and philosophies Idol of the Theatre.
To escape these errors, Bacon insisted that we use problem solving, which begins not with uncontested assumptions but with divergent or inductive thinking, considering all possibilities. The earliest known formal teaching method was the tutorial method. For five thousand years, the tutorial method continued to dominate.
Although English philosopher John Locke recommended its use, he introduced the concept, tabula rasa or blank slate, proposing that at birth the mind is a blank slate, and the only way to fill it is through having experiences, feeling these experiences, and reflecting on them.
With the birth of his own children, he gave away each child; yet, perhaps no one else has ever done so much to help children. In his adopted country, France, as perhaps was true universally at the time, children were seen as small adults.
Even worse, they were treated so.
Rousseau understood that such treatment was unnatural and damaging to children. In his book Emile Rousseau recommended a type of education that at the time was unknown, an education that was natural, child-centered, and experience-based.
His intent was to protect the children from a corrupting society and permit them to develop naturally.A school is an important place where learner converge together and get the knowledge from the teachers and other students as well.
There have been some changes that have been taking place in . School: a Place for Learning, or Earning Essay Tyler Hasty Maya Polan Writing 24 Thursday School: A place for learning, or for earning?
Consider some of the basic symbols of education in the United States: the textbook, the chalkboard, and the apple. A school is an important place where learner converge together and get the knowledge from the teachers and other students as well.
There have been some changes that have been taking place in the institutions of learning. Tyler Hasty Maya Polan Writing 24 Thursday School: A place for learning, or for earning?
Consider some of the basic symbols of education in the United States: the . School a Place of Learning Essay Sample. The Citadel has for its conceptual framework Learner-Centered education. This is a fluid theoretical model which is subject to change, and, indeed, does continuously change as the faculty continues to redefine this term.
OF PLACE AND EDUCATION Swimming Upstream Against the Current: Changing the School Improvement Paradigm By DAVID SOBEL David Sobel is a regular essayist and contributing editor of Community Works Journal and is a Senior Faculty in the Education Department at Antioch University New ashio-midori.com also coordinates Antioch's new Nature-based Early Childhood program.