That being said, many critics have a hard time agreeing upon the exact dates of some of the literary periods and dates one sees may contradict with one another. Poetry of the Renaissance period tended to contain elements truer to the poet than those which had been seen earlier in poetry During the 15th and 16th century, the English poetry was either a part of the The Renaissance Period or the Neoclassical Period Poetry of the Renaissance period tended to contain elements truer to the poet than those which had been seen earlier in poetry.
Peri Hypsous in translation: Retrieved Sep 29 from https: The "translation" of a concept of the sublime into epic theory has the potential to reorient our understanding of arguably the most prestigious genre of the sixteenth century.
While the influence of Aristotle, Horace, and Cicero led many Renaissance theorists to view the aim of poetry as ethical, shaping good citizens and building a moral society, Longinus presents something more radical: After all, according to epic theorist Torquato Tasso, the epic poem should evoke wonder and astonishment, a formula that epitomizes the characteristics of the sublime identified by Longinus.
I look at how translation contributed to the reception of Peri Hypsous in two stages: For the second stage, I focus on the fate of the sublime in two of the most important theories of epic in the sixteenth century, in Italy and England, respectively: Although it may be true that many sixteenth-century theorists misinterpreted or oversimplified Longinus, I suggest that, at closer look, the early editions and translations of Peri Hypsous indicate that Renaissance scholars did engage deeply with the treatise and its ideas about the sublime as a concept, revealing a focus on the ontological and noetic sources of sublimity.
In an outline of the five sources of sublimity in section 8. He elaborates on this passage in section 9.
Quoniam primum locum in distributione obtinet voqoic, monet, quam vis megalophues sit potius a natura, quam ab arte datum: While Longinus and Robortello both acknowledge the role of training, of active participation on the part of the poet, each stresses that such training is conceptual rather than technical: Pagano, for his part, amplifies his translation of the same Greek passage as follows: Importantly, with the phrase "granditatem The early translators also recognize that the sublime, as an ontological principle, manifests itself in an authors display of vehement emotion, the second most important source of sublimity for Longinus.
And in translating the phrase to note that emotion will inspire or inflame others, he suggests that the sublime is a dynamic, animate, and unstable force, transferring inevitably from the author to the reader as well.
This leads to a final observation about the role of early modern translations: From these passages, it is apparent that Boileau was not the first literary theorist to define the sublime as a concept and aesthetic principle associated with transcendence, distinct from language; rather, Boileau popularized an idea that was already recognized among a substantial minority as early as the mid-sixteenth century.
This claim is undoubtedly controversial, as scholarship on the Discorsi traditionally distances Tasso from Longinus, noting that Tasso never once references Peri Hypsous directly.
In his Italian translation, da Falgano translates ekplexis [astonishment, terror, or paralysis], the Longinian telos of poetry, as meraviglia.
Echoing these definitions, Tasso himself defines meraviglia as that which "ci rende quasi attoniti di veder" [makes us almost speechless to see] 73 ; he assigns agency to meraviglia, putting it in the subject position and representing it as an animate power that effectively paralyzes the audience.
By associating meraviglia with enchantment and "stupore"--paralysis--Tasso invokes an experience much more complex than aesthetic pleasure.
Rather, he points to the presence of a mysterious, overwhelming force that the sublime actively transmits to a reader: Thus, when Tasso writes, "Dee dunque ancora lepopeia aver il suo proprio diletto con la sua propria operazione; e questa per aventura e il mover maraviglia" Therefore the epic should have its own proper delight and its own effects, and this is perhaps inducing meravigliahe establishes the supremacy of epic by citing the superiority of its unique and unorthodox ends: Critically, in the description of Homer above, Tasso associates meraviglia particularly with the ennobled psychological condition of the author.
For Tasso, one of the most important authorial capacities is the ability to produce vivid images, a capacity he identifies as particularly indicative of a noble mind. Referring to this capacity interchangeably as enargia or evidenza, Tasso recalls the Longinian notion of phantasia, a mysterious process of image making.
Longinus "celebrat quasdam eximias phantasies poetarum: In theorizing a Longinian version of meraviglia and yoking it to epic, Tasso produces a crucial innovation to contemporary epic theory as based on the dominant humanist model. Traditionally considered a work in keeping with the neo-Aristotelian literary model, and frequently reflecting the Horatian maxim that the purpose of literature was "to delight and to teach," the Defence, I propose, also betrays a perceptible sublime subtext that scholars have not pursued, perhaps due to misunderstandings about the reception of Peri Hypsous in England.
Because Peri Hypsous would not be published or translated in England until much later than in Italy, most scholars tend to neglect the history of the English sublime before the mid-seventeenth century altogether. Moreover, his theory is full of Longinian vocabulary, speaking of literature "ravishing," carrying readers to the "heights," and being "unresistible," concepts similar to Longinian ekstasis and ekplexis.
In a systematic discussion of various genres, Sidney reserves his longest and most impassioned defense for "Heroical" poetry, which he explicitly names the "best and most accomplished kind"and indeed, several of the most notable instances of sublimity appear in this section.
Though offering a remarkably different appropriation of Longinus from Tasso, the Defence, I propose, becomes the first theoretical treatise to translate Longinian principles into English literary theory, and more particularly, to implicitly assign those principles to the heroic poem.
Sidneys "translation" of the sublime departs significantly from its Italian counterpart by invoking a strong Protestant element. As Dietmar Till notes in an important recent essay showing Hellenistic influence on Reformation dogmatics, Protestant thought had much in common with Longinian literary theory; both emphasized simplicity of style and elevation of concept over elaborate language, defying the traditional rhetorical categories that associated grandeur directly with stylistic elegance.
Like Longinus and Tasso, Sidney repeatedly emphasizes that inborn genius is a prerequisite to producing great writing, even while he puts a distinct twist on this idea. Qualifying his discussion of technique, Sidney stresses that poetry cannot be "drawn by the ears," but "rather it must lead--which was partly the cause that made the ancient-learned affirm it was a divine gift, and no human skill: A poet no industry can make, if his own genius be not carried into it" In fact, Sidney reserves some of his harshest criticism for poets whose verse lacks emotional vigor, whose minds are so dull and blind to "immortal beauty" that they instead feature "certain swelling phrases" that show no evidence that the poet can actually "feel those passions" To Sidney, poets are limited by an "infected will," which otherwise "keepeth us from reaching unto it"--that is, literary excellence--but the inspiration of the "heavenly Maker" has a regenerating effect that surmounts these limitations, "when with the force of a divine breath he bringeth things forth" For Sidney, it is not "rhyming and versing that maketh a poetThey were the first printed collections of Italian madrigals in England and had a great influence on English composers of the period.
A late sixteenth-century French phenomenon in which long and short word syllables were set by long and short notes in the ration sacred music before the Eton Choirbook. Copied in the early 15th C, it.
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Curtis Price (Englewood ), The literature dealing with artistic representations of David during the Renaissance is too extensive. Free Online Library: Peri Hypsous in translation: the sublime in sixteenth-century epic theory.(Critical essay) by "Philological Quarterly"; Literature, writing, book reviews Languages and linguistics Epics Criticism and interpretation Sublimity .
Free Online Library: Fletcher, Robert Huntington - A History of English Literature by Robert Huntington Fletcher Chapter V.
Period IV. The Sixteenth Century. The Renaissance And The Reign Of Elizabeth - best known authors and titles are available on the Free Online Library.
The English language had almost no prestige abroad at the beginning of the sixteenth century. One of the earliest sixteenth-century works of English literature, Thomas More’s Utopia, was written in Latin for an international intellectual community.