Hindu was originally a geographic designation Persians used for the people who lived beyond the Sindh River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, but the term was gradually adopted as a way of distinguishing between practitioners of Islam and others in India. The English term Hinduism designating a particular religion did not come into usage until the time that the British ruled India Hawley Because the term did not originate among the people who have come to call themselves Hindus, some scholars both in India and the West have argued that it is an artificial label.
The article expands Traditionalmodern ethics essay contemporary theories in the related fields of identity and subjectivity, particularly on theories of agency, which see the individual in more pragmatic and action oriented terms than theories of structure, still prevalent in cultural and literary interpretation.
The three theoreticians discussed at length here have been chosen from different backgrounds British, German and French to illustrate different yet distinctly European views of how the individual manages to make sense of himself and the world around him.
The article discusses in relevant detail the main concepts and theories elaborated by Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck and Bruno Latour- theories that can be used in literary and cultural studies as more appropriate tools for the understanding of the contemporary self and the issues surrounding identity.
Introduction There are two basic orientations in recent contemporary thinking about the related conceptual field of identity, selfhood Traditionalmodern ethics essay subjectivity: If theories of structure are characterized by epistemological skepticism and make up what Paul Ricoeur called a hermeneutics of suspicion aimed mainly at demystification, theories of agency interpret the subject in terms of a hermeneutics of recovery or of appropriation, and are more pragmatic and action oriented.
In the following pages I will try to give a brief outline of contemporary theories of agency, considering that the major representatives of the structure theories of identity Jacques Lacan, Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault are already too well known in academia.
That the subject is an agent is evident in everyday practice. Confronted with the law, professional or parental standards, or even social norms, we are regarded as separate entities capable to think and act on our own. Epistemologically, theories which emphasize the role of structures in the production of the subject may appear as closer to reality than theories of agency; yet in actual life agency is inescapable.
That is one of the reasons why theories of agency are more action-oriented and tend to be generated within more pragmatic, more scientifically active disciplines like sociology, the law and political science. The cultural anthropology of Raymond Williams and the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu bridge the gap between the subjectivist agency and the objectivist structure stances.
When discussing theories of agency I think it will be useful to keep in mind that the objectivist pole is never entirely absent, as agency is generally conceived as a stronger or weaker response to the objective possibilities embedded in structure.
Then the 2 concept of agency goes hand in hand with personal autonomy. You regard people as agents when you grant them independence and the freedom to act on their own. Yet autonomy was exactly the point of departure for the critique launched at Enlightenment and modernity.
Theories of agency will as a rule resume this dispute and argue that the Enlightenment project was not entirely flawed and that it could be improved. For instance, Jurgen Habermas claimed that the project of modernity was one with that of the Enlightenment and argued that it could not be completed because on an emphasis on instrumental rationality that led to reification.
Modernity-an Incomplete Project Another common feature is the historical perspective they adopt when explaining the structure- agency feedback loop. Both Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck differentiate between pre-modern and modern societies in terms of the former s almost complete reliance on structure and the latter s more reflexive or individual focus, which accounts for the greater part agency plays in the functioning of modern society.
Although theories of agency are numerous, I will confine my analysis to just three names: Anthony Giddens- Reflexivity and Narrative Identity Anthony Giddens is among the best-known British sociologists and public intellectuals, a spokesman concerned with the most pressing problems of our day- globalization and the politics of climate change- and more recently an advocate of the Third Way, a compromise between social democracy and neo-liberalism.
The central problem in his work is the relationship between the capacity of social actors to engage in action and social structure.
Although in many ways his theory of structuration resembles Bourdieu s theory of the habitus, Giddens s preference for action instead of practice and his conception of the subject as capable to reflect on his action situates him on the side of agency in the agency-structure debate.
In The Constitution of Society, Giddens argues that human agency and social structure are not separate concepts, but can be used as two different ways of considering action.
Structure is not something that completely determines the constitution of the human subject, like in poststructuralist theory. It is a direct result of all past individual action, like Bourdieu s habitus. Nevertheless, traditions, institutions, mentalities and all forms of social structure can be changed if the individuals start to ignore or challenge them.
This is possible because agents are endowed with rationality the capacity to reflect on their actsconscious intentions and knowledgeability about the world they inhabit:The best academic repository of essays and research papers on the internet. Menu. Home; Traditional versus modern ethics. Near the beginning developments in moral and political philosophy was absent in the lasting effect through the history of those, for both moral and political philosophy.
Chapter 5, Hindu Ethics, by S. S. Rama Rao Pappu, explains the basis for contemporary Hindu ethics and considers contemporary ethical issues such as family planning. Chapter 6, Contemporary Hindu Thought, by Brian A. Hatcher, introduces some of the most important Hindu thinkers of recent times.
fies work ethics: for example, the desire for money without having to work for it; gender division of labor; and consumption habits and accumulative styles.
It defines norms of behavior, such as inter- and intragenerational relations, codes of conduct for holders of political offices, and the difference between gift-giving and corruption. CheckPoint: Traditional versus Modern Ethics Response Modern ethics is said to have begun with G.E.
Moore ( –).
The focal point for G.E. Moore was “to conduct a general inquiry into what is good.” (Moore & Bruder, ) When Aristotle and Plato were building the foundations of traditional ethics the purpose was slightly different, but also very similar. Unitarian Christianity soaked with rational ethics attributed the present decadence of the native society to the existing belief system and social practices.
The evangelical wave permeating in the early nineteenth century encouraged a derogatory view of Hinduism and Islam. Moral and ethics are of high importance in determining the nature of a society or a culture.
Morals and ethics are used as complimentary terms but they mean different in literal sense. Essay on Ethics and Morals. Essay on Law, Ethics and Natural Justice ; Free Sample Essay on Law and Morals ; Essay on the World Pattern of Literacy.